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# Coumarin Synthesis

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 Sub Topics Owing to the tighter binding of the coumarin moiety to the PTP active site compared to phosphotyrosine as determined by lower Km values for coumarin substrates, we envisioned the use of coumarin based inhibitors for PTPs. Similar to pmp and F2pmp, two inhibitors were designed and synthesized.In the synthesis of the coumarin mold metabolite aflatoxin Buchi and Weinreb found that the usual conditions could not be employed because the phenol is exceptionally sensitive to acidic reagents.

## Synthesis of Coumarin by Perkin Reaction

When aromatic aldehyde is heated with the anhydride of an aliphatic acid in the presence of the sodium salt of the same acid, an $\alpha$, $\beta$-unsaturated acid is formed. This reaction is termed as perkins reaction.

An important extension of perkins reaction is in the synthesis of coumarin, which is used in perfumery.

Coumarin derivatives are important chemicals in the perfume, cosmetic, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries.

## Pechmann Coumarin Synthesis

One of the most extended procedures for coumarin synthesis consists of a Pechmann condensation, an acid catalyzed condensation of phenol with a $\beta$-ketoester. The reaction mechanism is initiated by an electrophilic aromatic substitution and involves a final step of localization. Lewis acid-mediated condensation of phenol with $\beta$-ketoester is known as Pechmann coumarin synthesis.

Among the different reaction conditions this describes a coumarin synthesis in the absence of solvent through a Pechmann condensation catalyzed by titanium tetrachloride.