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# Buchwald Hartwig

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 Sub Topics The elegance of the Buchwald-Hartwig protocol is that the conjugate acids of the heteroatom reagents are used and that the acid formed from this proton and the halide is neutralized by an added base. Prepared Pd complexes were employed as a catalyst for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination of aryl haildes. The obtained results were compared with those for the structurally related oxyamino-thioaminocarbene and the related NHC complex. Catalysts were efficient in the amination of bromobenzene demonstrating activities similar to those of the NHC complex.  The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is shown below.

## Mechanism

For Heck reactions using reagents without a carbon metal bond, syn addition and $\beta$-hydride elimination take place instead of transmetalation. The formation of MX or HX respectively renders the reaction thermodynamically favorable.