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Periodic Table

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Periodic table shows all the chemical elements and contains a great deal. All the elements are placed in the periodic table in order of increasing atomic number in a particular arrangement designed by Mendeleev in 1869. Elements are also arranged in specific horizontal rows and vertical columns. The families of elements shows the similar chemical properties that lie in the same vertical column on the periodic table are called groups.


Periodic Table is a valuable tool for organizing accumulated knowledge and that it helps us predict the properties of the elements.

What is the Periodic Table?

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Periodic Table Definition

"The periodic table is a list of all elements in order of their atomic numbers." Atoms differ from one another by their atomic weight and atomic number. Atoms are arranged in increasing atomic number on a chart known as the periodic table of elements.

An element is defined as the substance that could not be broken down into anything simpler. The periodic table consists of seven horizontal rows called periods and 18 vertical columns.

Periodic Table with Names

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The periodic table also consists of a number of vertical columns called groups. The groups are numbered from I to VII and then Group zero. Some groups have names. They are mentioned below.

S.No
Group number
Group name
1
I Alkali metals
2
II
Alkaline earth metals
3
VII
Halogens
4
0
Noble gas

The elements between Group II and Group III are all metals. They are called the transition elements or transition metals.

Periodic Table with Charges

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The metals of Groups 1A, 2A and 3A form ions having 1+, 2+ and 3+ charges that is their atoms lose electrons. Information about the charge of common ions can be obtained from the dynamic periodic table.

  1. Elements in the first column (Group 1) of the periodic table form ions with a +1 charge.
  2. Elements in the second column (Group 2) of the periodic table form ions with a +2 charge.
  3. Generally speaking elements in Group 13 form ions with a +3 charge.
  4. Oxygen and sulfur generally form ions with a -2 charge.
  5. The halogens Group 17 form ions with a -1 charge.

Periodic Table of the Elements

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The periodic table lists all the 108 known elements. The table provides information about each element. The characteristics of an element can be determined by the information contained within the elements. The position of the element in the Table enables to predict various properties about that element.

The periodic table is arranged so that elements with similar properties are grouped together in vertical columns with the elements being referred to as a group or family of elements. The atoms in a group contain the same number of outer shell electrons. Elements in the same horizontal row are all members of the same period and contain the same number of electron shells.

Metals on the Periodic Table


Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. Rest of the part are non metals and metalloids.

Metals Non Metals Periodic Table

Electron Configuration Periodic Table

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An electron configuration is a statement of how many electron an atom has in each of its sub shells. The principle that electrons normally occupy the lowest energy sub shell available is used to write electron configurations. The electronic configuration chart is given below.

Energy Levels Sequence Diagram

The groups of the periodic table consist of elements with similar electronic configurations. Thus the location of an element in the periodic table can be used to obtain information about its electron configuration.

Periodic Table with Molar Mass


The molar mass is the mass in grams of a substance that is numerically equal to the substance's formula mass. In each symbol in the periodic table is both an atomic mas in atomic mass units and the molar mass in grams. The part of periodic table with mass is shown below.

Periodic Table With Mass

History of the Periodic Table

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The history of the development of a systematic pattern for the elements includes the work of a number of scientists. With the discovery of elements and the study of their properties a need was generated to organize the findings.

Mendeleev in 1869 proposed a table containing seventeen columns and given the credit for the Natural Elements Periodic Table. Mendeleev's table had the elements arranged by atomic weights with properties recurring in a periodic manner.

The modern interactive periodic table contains a tremendous amount of useful information. The periodic table was originally constructed to represent the patterns observed in the chemical properties of the elements.

Periodic Table Families

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Elements are arranged so those with similar chemical and physical properties lie in vertical columns called groups or families. The periodic table can be divided into several regions according to the properties of the elements. The labeled periodic table are shown in the diagram.

Periodic Table of Elements

Periodic Table with Valence Electrons

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For grouping of elements in the periodic table is that elements in a group of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons in the same shapes of orbitals. In general the number of valence electrons of an atom equals its group number.

Ionization Energy Periodic Table


Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom forming a positively charged cation. Ionization energy increases from left to right in the periodic table and decreases from top to bottom in the periodic table.

Electronegativity Periodic Table


Electronegativity is a measure of the power of an atom in a molecule to draw electrons to itself. Electronegativity increase as we move across the period and decreases from top to bottom because of the increasing distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus.

Periodic Table Trends

How to Read the Periodic Table?

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Periodic table is read by
  1. Creation of an original symbol
  2. Indication of the atomic number
  3. Inclusion of the atomic weight
  4. Proper placement on the periodic table on the elements characteristics
Every nucleus can be specified by the number of protons and neutrons it contains. Atomic number is nothing but the number of protons in the nucleus denoted by Z. Each element has a particular and unique number of protons in its nucleus, each has a characteristics value of Z.
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Representative Elements

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The representative elements designated as the R family have only their outermost shell incompletely filled and have a general electronic configuration. The inner shells are completely filled. The metallic elements which are found on the left side and in the center of the periodic table are known as representative elements.
Elements are grouped into four blocks s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block depend upon the type of atomic orbital that is being filled with electrons. The elements belonging to the different blocks are known as s, p, d and f block elements respectively.
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A group is the vertical column of elements in the periodic table. Four groups have common names. Alkali metals, Alkaline earth metals, Halogens and Noble gases.
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Natural Elements

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There are 98 natural elements. Every substance on earth is made up of one of these elements or a compound of two or more elements. The lightest element is hydrogen and the heaviest element is uranium. Natural elements are found on earth.

Trends in the Periodic Table

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There are five periodic trends that are governed by electron configuration. They are atomic radius, electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy and metallic character.