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Periodic Table of Elements

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The periodic table is a concise organizational chart of elements. The periodic table not only summarizes important facts about the elements, but also incorporates a theoretical relationship for understanding the relationships between elements. The modern periodic table presents information on how the elements are organized in it.


The elements are placed in the table in order of increasing atomic number in a particular arrangement designed by Mendeleev in 1869. This arrangement organizes the elements with similar chemical properties in columns called families or groups. The periodic table reflects an attempt at a systematic organization of the elements from the perspective of their atomic structures.

Periodic Table of Elements Definition

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"The periodic table of elements is arranged by groups and periods. The 18 vertical columns of the periodic table of elements are called groups. Elements in the same group have similar characteristics. The horizontal rows of the periodic table of elements are called periods".
Periodic table of elements include a line dividing the elements into metals, nonmetals and metalloids. Most of the elements are metals in periodic table. Elements which are called metalloids possess both the properties of metals and nonmetals. Periodic table of elements are useful and it makes learning about the elements easier.

Facts about the Periodic Table of Elements

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The modern periodic table is more appropriate as the elements are placed in the table based on their atomic number. The periodic function is based on the chemical properties and the atomic number.
  1. Groups - Elements belonging to the same group have similar properties. There are 16 groups and classified as IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIII, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB and zero group.
  2. s, p, d and f - block elements - The long form of the periodic table can also be divided into 4 blocks. The classification is based on the types of orbitals.
  3. s - block elements - When the last electron enters the s-orbital of the outermost shell then those elements are called s-block elements.
  4. p - block elements - The elements in which their atoms receive the last electron in their p-orbitals are called p-block elements.
  5. d - block elements - The elements in which the last electron enters the d-orbital of the penultimate shell are called d-block elements. They are also called transition elements.
  6. f - block elements - The elements in which the last electron enters the f-orbital of the anti-penultimate shell are called f-block elements.

History of the Periodic Table of Elements

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The periodic table was constructed to represent the patterns observed in the chemical properties of the elements.
  1. Wolfgang Dobereiner is the first person to group similar elements in sets of three. He called these triads. Dobereiner found that the relative atomic mass of the middle element was roughly the average of those of the other two elements.
  2. In 1865 John Newlands put the elements in order of atomic mass. In his study every eighth element was similar. This works only for the fist 15 elements known at that time. After that no links between the rest of the elements.
  3. In 1869 the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev tried putting the elements in order of atomic mass. New rows were started so that elements which were alike could line up together in columns.
  4. The periodic table now in use is given by Lother Meyer and Mendeleev. Although Mendeleev table was widely accepted. The atoms of elements in the periodic table are not arranged in order of mass. It is their number of protons that really matters.

Periodic Table of Elements Families

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In periodic table the elements are arranged having same chemical and physical properties which lie in vertical column are called groups or families. Each chemical element shows a characteristic pattern of chemical reactivity. Moreover groups of elements called families also display similar reaction characteristics.

Several system exist for numbering the groups. The columns are numbered from left to right using the numbers 1-18. The other way is using a system that numbers the columns with numbers and the letters A and B. A group elements are called main group elements and B group elements are called transition elements.
Elements of the periodic table families are shown below.

Periodic Table of Elements Families

Periodic Table of Elements with Names and Symbols

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According to Berzelius elements have been symbolized by the first one or two letters of the English name. The first letter of the chemical symbol is always capital letter and the second letter is lowercase. So far 112 elements are officially named. Each element is designated by a one or two letter symbol.

Most symbols for the elements are simple abbreviation of their English names. The symbols for 11 elements however are derived from the elements names in other languages, mainly Latin. The non-English chemical names are listed below.

S.No
Element name
Symbol
1 Sodium Na
2
Potassium
K
3
Iron
Fe
4
Copper
Cu
5
Silver
Ag
6 Tin
Sn
7
Antimony
Sb
8 Tungsten W
9
Gold
Au
10 Mercury Hg
11
lead
Pb

Periodic Table of Elements with Oxidation Numbers

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The concept of oxidation number is developed to work with both real and apparent charges. It can be positive, negative or zero.

The rules for assigning oxidation numbers to elements are given below.
  1. The oxidation number of every atom in the free element is zero means the an element is not combined with other element.
  2. In a molecular or ionic compound the algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers must be zero since all compounds are electrically neutral.
  3. The oxidation number of a simple ion is its charge. For example, the oxidation number of Br- is -1.
  4. In a polyatomic ion the algebraic sum of oxidation number is equal to the charge on he ion.
  5. Hydrogen in combination usually has an oxidation number of +1. An exception is the group of compounds known as hydride.
  6. Oxygen in combination usually has an oxidation number of -2. Exception includes peroxides.

Periodic Table of Elements with Charges

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  1. First column (Group 1) elements of the periodic table form ions with a +1 charge.
  2. Second column (Group 2) elements of the periodic table form ions with a +2 charge.
  3. Elements in Group 13 form ions with a +3 charge.
  4. Oxygen and sulfur generally form ions with a -2 charge.
  5. Group 17 (halogens) form ions with a -1 charge.

Periodic Table of Elements Electronegativity

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Electronegativity refers to the ability of a bonded atom to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity values increase from left to right across a period of the periodic table. Within a group of elements electronegativity decreases with increasing atomic number.

Periodic Table of Elements Electronegativity

Periodic Table of Elements with Valence Electrons

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The number of Valence electrons for a given element is determined from its position in the periodic table. The chemical view of matter is primarily concerned with what valence electrons are doing in the course of chemical reactions. All atoms of elements in a given A group have the same number of valence electrons and that the elements have one valence electron.

Periodic Table of Elements with Valence Electrons

It is important to note that the number of valence electrons for main group elements equals the group number of the element.

Periodic Table of Elements with Atomic Mass

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Periodic trends become evident when the chemical and physical properties of the elements vary according to their position on the periodic table. Types of periodic trends that can be determined by an elements position on the periodic table include atomic mass.

Periodic Table of Elements with Atomic Mass


Atomic mass scale is adopted by scientist worldwide in 1961 is based on assigning the mass of a particular isotope.
Properties of elements on the periodic table shows the families of elements with similar properties. Periodic table is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows of such a length that elements with similar chemical properties fall directly beneath one another in vertical groups.