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Periodic Table Blocks


The long form of periodic table is based upon modern periodic law. Elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic numbers in such a way so that elements with similar properties fall under same vertical column.

The importance of the outermost shell, the different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as periodic table blocks, named according to the sub shell in which the "last" electron resides. The elements are classified into four blocks depending on the type of atomic orbitals which are being filled with electrons.

Periodic Table Building Blocks

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The periodic table is divided into four blocks - s, p, d and f block. s-block consists of elements of groups 1 and 2 while p-block consists of elements of groups 13 to 18. The d-block elements lie between the s and p block elements. d-block consists of elements of groups 3 to 12. The two rows of elements placed at the bottom of the periodic table constitute the f-block. All the elements belonging to d and f-block are metals.

  1. The s-block comprises the first two groups as well as hydrogen and helium.
  2. The p-block comprises the last six groups and contains among others all of the semi metals.
  3. The d-block comprises groups 3 through 12 and contains all of the transition metals.
  4. The f-block usually offset below the rest of the periodic table comprises the rare earth metals.

Periodic Table s p d f Blocks

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s block periodic table

  • s-orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons.
  • Their general formula are ns1 and ns2 respectively.
  • The total number of s block elements are 13.
  • The elements of the periodic table in which last electron enters in s-orbital are called s-block elements.

p block elements

  • A p-orbital can accommodate a maximum of six electrons.
  • The general formula of p block elements are ns2p1-6
  • The total number of p block elements in the periodic table is 30.
  • There are nine gaseous elements belonging to p-block. Gallium and bromine are liquids.

d-block elements

  • The elements of the periodic table in which the last electron gets filled up in the d orbital called d block elements.
  • The general formula of these elements is (n-1)s2, p6, d1-10ns1-2 where n=4 to 7.
  • All of these elements are metals.
  • Out of all d block elements mercury is the only liquid element.

f-block element

  • The element of the periodic table in the last electron gets filled up in the f-orbital, called f-block elements.
  • The f-block elements are from atomic number 58 to 71and from 90 to 103.
  • There are 28 f block elements in the periodic table.
  • The elements from atomic number 58 to 71 are called lanthanides because they come after lanthanum (57). The elements from 90 to 103 are called actinides because they come after actinium (89).

Periodic Table Blocks

Blocks of the Periodic Table

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Elements are grouped into four blocks s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block depends upon the type of atomic orbital that is being filled with electrons.

s-block elements

The elements of Group 1 and Group 2 belongs to s-block elements. Group 1 elements are known as "Alkali metals" and group 2 elements are known as "Alkaline metals".

d-block elements

Elements of group 3 to 12 in the center of the periodic table belongs to d-block. These elements are called transition elements. The 10 groups of elements after s-block are covered by d-block elements.

p-block elements

Remaining groups belong to p-block. The first group 1 and group 2 are s-block and the next 10 groups are called d-block. So we can calculate the remaining groups from 13 to 18 belongs to p-block elements.

f-block elements

The two rows at the bottom of the periodic table comes under f-block elements. These elements are named as actinides and lanthanides.

Periodic Table with Orbital Blocks

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An important feature of the long form of the periodic table is that it can be divided into four general sections known as s, p, d and f-blocks. The division is based upon the type of atomic orbital which receives the last electron in an atom. The elements belonging to the different blocks are known as s, p, d and f block elements respectively.
  1. s-block elements in which the last electron enters the s orbital of the outermost energy level. They have the configuration ns1 and ns2 where n represents the last energy level.
  2. p-block elements having the outermost energy level configuration ns2, np1-6. The p-block consists of six groups of elements.
  3. The ten groups of d-block elements have the configuration (n-1)d1-10ns2 or (n-1)d1-10ns1. These elements lie between s and p-block elements.
  4. f-block elements have the general configuration of (n-2)f1-14ns2 or (n-2)f1-14 (n-1)d1ns2. There are two rows of these elements placed separately outside the main table; the first series (4f) of elements is known as lanthanides and the second series (5f) of elements is known as actinides.

Modern Periodic Law

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Mendeleev periodic table misfits because of the problem of isotopes. Mendeleev's periodic table disappeared when the basis of classification of elements was change to atomic number instead of atomic masses. In 1912 it was Mosley showed that the position of an element in the periodic table depends on its atomic number and not on the atomic mass.

According to Mosley the properties of the elements are better co-related with their atomic numbers and on this basis a new periodic law was given called Modern periodic law. It state that "the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers".

The elements are arranged according to this Modern periodic law and a new table is formed which is named as Modern periodic table or long form of periodic table.

Periods and Groups

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Elements in the modern periodic table are arranged sequentially by atomic number in rows and columns. Moseley s work established the concept of atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus as the key for determining an elements position in the periodic table. Rows in the periodic table are referred to as periods and columns are called groups.

The periods run left to right, and the groups from top to bottom. A group may also comprise a chemical family. The first and second groups are the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals respectively. The group starts with fluorine is called halogen family. The last group on the extreme right are called noble gases family.

Periodic Table Groups