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Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

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The most fundamental classification of the chemical elements is into metals and nonmetals. As elements progress from group 13 to group 17 they show a shift from metallic characteristics to properties of the nonmetals. Some elements listed in groups 13, 14, 15 and 16 may have both metal like qualities - metalloids or semiconductors - as well as a few nonmetal properties.


The periodic table classifies into families that have similar physical properties and chemical characteristics. Not all the elements of a group have same properties and characteristics. Some elements in these groups are more like metals and give up electrons, some are more like metalloids or semiconductors, which means they may act somewhat like metals and somewhat as nonmetals and some are more like nonmetals because they gain electrons in chemical reactions.

Periodic Table Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

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There are several ways to categorize elements of group 13 to 16. These are metals different in several ways from the transition elements. They range from metallics to metalloids to nonmetals.
The elements in these groups are arranged according to their properties, characteristics and the position of their electrons in their atoms outer shells. These and other factors determine how they are depicted in the periodic table.

The metals nonmetals and metalloids on the periodic table is shown below.

Periodic Table Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

Metals

Elements found in the left two thirds of the periodic table. Most have the following properties - high thermal and electrical conductivities, high malleability and ductility and a metallic luster.

Nonmetals

Elements found in the right one third of the periodic table. They often occur as brittle, powdery solids or gases and have properties generally opposite those of metals. Under normal conditions, they often occur as brittle powdery solids or as gases.

Metalloids

Metalloids such as boron and silicon are the elements that form a diagonal separation between metals and nonmetals in the periodic table. Metalloids have properties somewhat between those of metals and nonmetals, and they often exhibit some of the characteristic properties of each type.

List of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids

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Occurrence of metals

In nature metals are found both in free state and combined state. In free state it is said to be in native state. Most of the other metals are found in nature in the form of compounds. The compounds found inside the earths crust which are rich in a particular metal are called ore. Ores are defined as the naturally occurring mineral from which metals can be extracted cheaply and conveniently.

Occurrence of nonmetals

Like metals nonmetals are found both in free and combined state. Some of the non-metals like the noble gases occur in free state because they are least reactive elements. Like metals non-metals are also extracted from their sources for specific purposes.

List of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids

Most of the elements on the periodic table are metals and are listed on the left side of the periodic table and are in purple boxes. Nonmetals are located on the right side of the periodic table and are in green boxes. Metalloids have properties immediate between the metals and nonmetals and are listed in blue boxes.

Properties of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids

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All elements of the periodic table can be classified as metals or nonmetals, with the exception of a small number of so called metalloids. The main physical and chemical properties that chemically distinguish metals from nonmetals include
  1. Having a characteristic luster (in the elemental state)
  2. Being malleable and ductile
  3. Characteristically forming positively charged ions (cations)
  4. Having higher melting points and boiling points than nonmetals (solid at normal temperature and pressure)
  5. Having high density compared with nonmetals
  6. Having the ability to form basic oxides
  7. Usually being good conductors of heat and electricity
  8. Often displaying hydrogen from dilute non oxidizing acids


The metalloids display some of the same properties as metals and a number of them are of considerable interest for their environmental toxicology. Six elements are classified metalloids.

  1. Boron
  2. Silicon
  3. Germanium
  4. Arsenic
  5. Antimony
  6. Tellurium


The elements have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. For example, some metalloids are shiny like metals but do not conduct electricity. One of these metalloids silicon is a semiconductor that is it does not conduct electricity under a certain applied voltage.

Characteristics of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids

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The elements of the periodic table are divided by a heavy "staircase" line into metals on the left and nonmetals on the right. Most of the elements bordering the staircase line in the periodic table are metalloids or semi metals.

The characteristics of metals nonmetals and metalloids are given below.

Physical properties


S.No
Metals
Nonmetals
1 Good conductors of electricity  Poor conductors of electricity
2
Ductile Not ductile
3
Malleable, lustrous  Not malleable
4
Solids  Solids, liquids or gases
5High melting point
Low melting point
6
Good conductors of heat
Poor conductors of heat

Chemical properties


S.No
Metals
Nonmetals
1 React with acids
Do not react with acids
2
Form basic oxides that react with acids
Form acidic oxides that react with bases
3
Form cations
Form anions
4
Form ionic halides
Form covalent halides

Examples of Metals Nonmetals and Metalloid

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Is Silicon a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Silicon is a metalloid. It is a semiconductor - that is it does not conduct electricity under certain applied voltages, but becomes a conductor at higher applied voltages. This makes it a vital element for silicon valley - based companies and the entire electronics industry.

Is Sodium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Sodium is an alkali metal. It is very reactive and placed in s-block elements on the periodic table. Its a very good conductor of electricity and heat.

Is Sulfur a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Sulfur is a non metal. It s placed in the p-block elements under oxygen family. It tends to gain one or more electrons lost by metallic atoms to form negatively charged ions.

Is Gold a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Gold is a transition metal. Gold is malleable and lustrous, excellent properties for using this element in jewelry. It is placed in group 11 in periodic table.

Is Calcium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Calcium is an alkaline earth metal and is place in group 2 of s-block elements. It is a solid at room temperature. They have high luster and are good conductors of heat and electricity. It is malleable and ductile. It has high melting and boiling points.

Is Iron a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Iron is an example of transition metal and placed in group 8 of d-block elements. It is very hard and used in the production of sheet steel for automobiles and household applications depends on the malleability of iron and steel.

Is Helium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Helium is a non metal and it is placed in zero group. It is also called as noble gas. It is very stable colorless and nonreactive gas.

Is Hydrogen a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Hydrogen does not fit into the division of metals and nonmetals. It displays nonmetallic properties under normal conditions, even though it has only one outermost electron like alkali metals. Hydrogen is considered to be unique element.

Is Magnesium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and is placed in group 2 of s-block elements. It exists in solid state silvery grey metal and non magnetic in nature. It occurs only in combined state as compounds.

Is Iodine a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Iodine is an example of halogen and considered as non metal and placed in group 17 of p-block elements of the periodic table. It is solid at room temperature and do not conduct electricity.

Is Zinc a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Zinc is an example of transition element placed in group 12 of d-block elements. It is a familiar metal having high melting point and boiling point. It possess high density.

Is Oxygen a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Oxygen is a non metal and is placed in group 16 of the p-block elements. It is one of the main constituent of air, earth and water. It exists in gaseous form.

Is Arsenic a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Arsenic is an metalloid and is placed in group 15 of the p-block elements. The compounds of arsenic are carcinogenic. It is odorless and if spilled on clothing and allowed to remain may cause smarting and reddening of the skin.

Is Aluminum a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Aluminum is a metal placed in group 13 of the p-block elements. It is mostly used in alloying. The surface of aluminum are highly reflective. Aluminum typically displays excellent electrical and thermal conductivity.

Is Barium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Barium is a alkaline earth metal placed in group 2 of the s-block elements. It is the heaviest metal with the density of 3.5. It is silvery yellow metal that is malleable and ductile. It is very reactive and ignites spontaneously.

Is Silver a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Silver is an example for transition metal placed in group 11 of the d-block elements. Pure form of silver is very soft and it is often alloyed with copper to make it harder. It has high electrical conductivity and resistance to oxidation make it an ideal material for use in variety of products.

Is Argon a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Argon is a non metal and it is placed in zero group of the p-block elements. It is also called inert gas or noble gas. It is used in filling incandescent and fluorescent lamps and electronic tubes to provide a protective shield for growing and germanium crystals.

Is Fluorine a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Fluorine is a halogen and a non metal placed in group 17 of the p-block elements. It shows the largest electronegativity among all elements. It can display a number of unique characteristics that impart unusual partitioning properties in both model systems and the environment.

Is Germanium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Germanium is a metalloid and is placed in group 14 of p-block elements. It is used as a polymerization catalyst and as a byproduct of zinc smelting. It is also used in the field of infrared optics, optical fiber and in dental alloys.

Is Phosphorus a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Phosphorus is a non metal placed in group 15 of the p-block elements. Phosphorus is a flesh colored or yellowish semi transparent substance and brittle during frost. It has a rough disagreeable taste and its odor resembles that of garlic.

Is Copper a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Copper is an example for transition metal placed in group 11 of the d-block elements. The alloy of copper retain high degree of ductility and toughness at subzero temperatures.

Is Lithium a Metal Nonmetal or Metalloid?

Lithium is an alkali metal placed in group 1 of the s-block elements. It is a silvery white metal slight harder than sodium. It is chemically active that it never occurs as a pure element in nature; it is always bound in stable minerals or salts.
The non metals are found in the upper right hand corner of the periodic table. The physical properties on nonmetals are more variable than those of metals, but most nonmetals are poor conductors of electricity and heat. Non metals are less hard and dense and some are liquids or gases at room temperature.

In general the elements with large numbers of electrons in the outer shell are non metals. The dividing lime between metals and non metals runs diagonally through the periodic table. Some common non metals found in the body are carbon, chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.
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