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# Electronic Configuration

Top
 Sub Topics The distribution of electrons in various shell, sub shells and orbitals in an atom of an element is known as its complete electronic configuration. The distribution of electrons in various sub-shells or orbitals of the valence shell of an atom is called valence shell configuration. The electronic configuration of an atom is written in terms of nlx notation, when l=0 (s-sub shell), 1 (p-sub shell), 2 (d-sub shell) and 3 (f-sub shell). In this notation the superscript x, written at the top if l indicates the number of electrons present in the sub shell, given by l, while n written to the left of l indicates the number of shell to which the sub shell denoted by l belongs.Electronic configuration is a means of stating which kinds of orbitals contain electrons and the numbers of electrons and the numbers of electrons in each kind of orbital of an atom. It is expressed by the number and letter representing each kind of orbital and superscript numbers telling how many electrons are in each sub level.

## Electron Configuration Definition

What is Electronic Configuration?

Electronic configuration has to do with the order in which electrons fill energy levels in the atoms of the elements of the atomic periodic table.

An electronic configuration of an organic molecule is defined as a listing of the MOs that are occupied with electrons in the configuration. Thus an electron configuration tells us how the electrons are distributed among the available orbitals and also provides a description of the electronic distribution of a molecule from the knowledge of the spatial distribution of the orbitals.

## Valence Electron Configuration

The valence electron configuration of an atom essentially defines its personality. This personality includes the atoms size its appetite for electrons and its willingness to associate with other atoms in chemical bonding.

One of the justifications for grouping elements as we do in the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons in the same shapes of orbitals. In general the number of valence electrons in the same shapes of orbitals.

In general the number of valence electrons of an atom equals its group number. In the old styles of numbering periodic tables the number of valence electrons equals the group number as long as the groups in a given part of the periodic table are consecutively numbered. The groups of f-block elements are not numbered at all in a conventional periodic table, so we must count over from La and Ac as "3" or Ce and Th as "4". Lu and Lr should be numbered as having three valence electrons.

## Ground State Electron Configuration

The ground state configuration is defined as the configuration for which the orbitals that are occupied produce the state of lowest energy. All other electronic configurations correspond to electronically excited states.

Each element has a distinctive configuration of electrons in orbitals its electron configuration. The lowest energy state an atom can have is described as its ground state. The electron configuration of the ground state of atoms of any element is determined by applying the rules.

The ground state electron configuration for first 10 elements are listed below.

 S.No Element Atomic number Electronic configuration Number of electrons in each orbital 1 H 1 1s1 1222222222 12222222 111222 11122 1112 2 He 2 1s2 3 Li 3 1s22s1 4 Be 4 1s22s2 5 B 5 1s22s22p1 6 C 6 1s22s22p2 7 N 7 1s22s22p3 8 O 8 1s22s22p4 9 F 9 1s22s22p5 10 Ne 10 1s22s22p6

The Excited State Electron Configuration are that they must contain the same total number of electrons as the ground state, and no energy level, or sub level can have more than its maximum number of electrons.

## Periodic Table with Electron Configuration

There is a close relation between electronic configuration and long form of periodic table.
1. Each successive period in periodic table is concerned with filling of next higher principle energy level.
2. It is observed that the number of elements in each period is twice the number of atomic orbitals being filled.
3. The sixth period (n=6) contains 32 elements and successive electrons enter 6s, 4f, 5d and 6p orbitals in that order.
4. Elements in the same vertical column or group have similar electronic configuration have the same number of electrons in outermost orbitals and similar properties.
5. The elements placed in the same group or family constitute a family of elements having similar properties.

The periodic table based on the blocks in the periodic table is given below.

## Electron Configuration Diagram

The depiction of electron configuration is the orbital box diagram , but the most frequency method is spdf method. The electron configuration diagrams is shown below.

## Electron Configuration Rules

Electrons occupy orbitals in a predictable pattern according to these three rules.
1. Orbitals of lowest energy fill first. (the Aufbau principle)
2. A maximum of two electrons (of opposite spin) may occupy a single orbital (the Pauli exclusion principle)
3. When more than one orbital of the same energy is empty each of these orbitals will first acquire one electron before any orbital acquires the second electron (Hund's rule)

## Electron configuration Chart

Electron configuration is the shape of the electrons around the atom, that is which energy level and what kind of orbital it is in. The electron configuration list is given below.

## Reactivity Series

The arrangements of metals in the order of reactivity are called reactivity series. In other words a series of elements ranked in order of reactivity also known as reactivity series. It also measures the readiness of the metals to give up electrons to form positive ions.

## Quantum Numbers

The Schrodinger equation can be solved approximately for atoms with two or more electrons. There are many solutions for the wave functions $\psi$, each associated with a set of numbers called quantum numbers. It is required to completely describe a specific electron in a multi-electron atom.