Chemical language includes the naming of chemicals both systematic and common names, and the names and definitions of significant chemical and physical properties. The relationship of chemical names to chemical structures and formula is also important. And just as with any language if one is to talk chemistry, it helps to be able to pronounce the names and other terms.
Many of the terms and names needed to understand chemical "language" are introduced. A major part in the language of chemistry is in learning the names of the chemicals (nomenclature).
IUPAC nomenclature practice helps to assign the name of each compound that not only identifies the name but also enables one to draw its structural formula. Some of the IUPAC nomenclature examples are given below.
|S.No ||Molecular formula
||Condensed structural formula
IUPAC nomenclature practice problems are given below.
- The IUPAC prefix for the given compound is pent-
- The molecular formula for the given compound is found to be C5H12.
- The IUPAC name of this compound is pentane.
The given compound is CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3.
The parent chain is butane.
In the 2nd carbon one methyl group is attached.
So the IUPAC name for this compound will be 2-methyl butane.
List of Organic CompoundsBack to Top
A list of organic compounds are given below.
|S.No||Class of Compound
||Name of specific compound
|2||Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon ||Chloroform|
|3||Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbon ||Chlorobenzene |
|Pentachloro phenol |
|Poly chlorinated biphenyls |
|Dioxins and furans|
IUPAC Organic NomenclatureBack to Top
- The first field includes the names and position of substituents.
- The second field contains the compound root word.
- The third field is what we call the multiple bond index.
- The fourth field defines the principle functional group.
Before the IUPAC rules were accepted, trival or common names were widely employed, and many of these were incorporated into IUPAC system.
Names of Chemical CompoundsBack to Top
How to name chemical compounds?
A chemical name is a one to two letter designation for an element derived from the elements name. Chemical symbols can be written more quickly than the names and they occupy less space. The following table describes the naming of chemical compounds.
|1||Binary compounds||Type 1: Ionic (containing a metal element with only one change possibility and a nonmetal element)||
|Type 2: Ionic (containing a metal element that has more that one charge possibility and a nonmetal element)|
|Type 3: Covalent (containing two nonmetal elements)||
|2||Other than binary compounds||Ionic compound containing at least three elements.||Name the parts of the compound in the order presented in the formula.|
Common Chemical NamesBack to Top
Chemical nomenclature is the system of names that chemists use to identify compounds. Chemical names of common substances have distinct limitations. When a new substance is formulated it must be named in order to distinguish it from all other substances is shown below.
Chemical Group NamesBack to Top
Group number in the periodic table equals the number of electrons in the outer shell. Therefore all the atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.
Periodic Table with Chemical NamesBack to Top
Chemical Names ListBack to Top
|1||Chemical name for water
||HBr chemical name
||CaS chemical name
||CO chemical name||Carbon monoxide|
||NH2 chemical name
||NH3 chemical name (Chemical name for NH3)||Ammonia|
||OH chemical name||Hydroxyl|
||NaClO chemical name||Sodium hypochlorite|
||IO4 chemical name
||HF chemical name||Hydrogen fluoride|
|11 ||Fe2O3 chemical name||Iron(III) oxide|
|12 ||NO2 chemical name||Nitrogen dioxide|
|13 ||BaS chemical name||Barium sulfide|
|14 ||CuO chemical name ||Copper oxide|
|15 ||Aspirin chemical name||2-acetoxybenzoic acid|
|16 ||HClO3 chemical name ||Chloric acid|
|17 ||S2F10 chemical name||Sulfur IV fluoride|
|18 ||FeO chemical name||Iron(II) oxide|
|19 ||H2SO3 chemical name||Sulfurous acid |
|20 ||HIO3 chemical name||Iodic acid|
|21 ||CO3 chemical name||Carbon Trioxide|
|22 ||KClO chemical name||Potassium hypochlorite|
|23 ||SO4 chemical name ||Sulfate|
|24 ||PCl5 chemical name||Phosphorus pentachloride|
|25 ||SnO2 chemical name||Stanum dioxide|
|26 ||H2CO3 chemical name||Carbonic acid|
|27 ||PbS chemical name||Lead(II) sulfide|
|28 ||CaCl2 chemical name||Calcium chloride|
|29 ||HClO4 chemical name||Perchloric Acid|
|30 ||KOH chemical name||Potassium hydroxide|
|31 ||PCl3 chemical name||Phosphorus trichloride |
|32 ||SF6 chemical name||Sulfur hexafluoride|
|33 ||NaHCO3 chemical name||Sodium hydrogen carbonate|
|34 ||SrS chemical name||Stillinerium(2)Sufusufide|
|35 ||KCN chemical name ||Potassium cyanide|
|36 ||PO4 chemical name ||Phoshate|
|37 ||CS2 chemical name ||Carbon disulfide|
|38 ||HgO chemical name||Mercury(II) oxide|
|39 ||NaF chemical name ||Sodium fluoride|
|40 ||KNO2 chemical name ||Potassium nitrite|
|41 ||SiO chemical name ||Silicon monoxide|
|42 ||KMnO4 chemical name||Potassium manganate(VII)|
|43 ||KBr chemical name||Potassium bromide|
|44 ||SnO chemical name ||Tin(II) oxide / Stannous oxide|
|45 ||CaO chemical name||Calcium oxide|
|46 ||Salt chemical name||Sodium Chloride|
|47 ||N2H4 chemical name||Hydrazine|
|48 ||HBrO3 chemical name||Bromous acid|
|49 ||FeCl3 chemical name||Ferric chloride|
|50 ||Ibuprofen chemical name||(RS)-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl)propanoic acid|
|51 ||NaOH chemical name||Sodium hydroxide|
|52 ||Bleach chemical name ||Sodium hypochlorite|
|53 ||SiO2 chemical name||Silicon dioxide|
|54 ||Na2CO3 chemical name||Sodium carbonate|
|55 ||Chemical name for P4O10||Tricyclo[22.214.171.124,7]tetraphosphoxane 1,3,5,7-tetraoxide|
|56 ||NH4NO2 chemical name||Ammonium Nitrite|
|57 ||BaF2 chemical name||Barium fluoride|
|58 ||HSO4 chemical name||Hydrogen Sulfate|
|59 ||Chemical name for citric acid||2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid|
|60 ||Vitamin D chemical name ||Cholecalciferol|
|61 ||Vitamin A chemical name||Retinal|
|62 ||Vitamin E chemical name||Tocopherol|