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Chemical language includes the naming of chemicals both systematic and common names, and the names and definitions of significant chemical and physical properties. The relationship of chemical names to chemical structures and formula is also important. And just as with any language if one is to talk chemistry, it helps to be able to pronounce the names and other terms.

Many of the terms and names needed to understand chemical "language" are introduced. A major part in the language of chemistry is in learning the names of the chemicals (nomenclature).

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC for short) has developed a set of rules called IUPAC nomenclature rules for giving a unique name for each organic compound.

IUPAC nomenclature practice helps to assign the name of each compound that not only identifies the name but also enables one to draw its structural formula. Some of the IUPAC nomenclature examples are given below.

S.No
Molecular formula
IUPAC prefix
IUPAC name
Condensed structural formula
CH4 meth- methane CH4
2
C2H6
eth-
ethane
CH3-CH3
3
C3H8
prop-
propane
CH3-CH2-CH3
4
C4H10
but-
butane
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

IUPAC nomenclature practice problems are given below.

Solved Examples

Question 1: Find the IUPAC name of a compound CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3.
Solution:
 
  • The IUPAC prefix for the given compound is pent-
  • The molecular formula for the given compound is found to be C5H12.
  • The IUPAC name of this compound is pentane.

 

Question 2: Find the IUPAC name for the compound CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3.
Solution:
 
The given compound is CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3.

The parent chain is butane.
CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3
In the 2nd carbon one methyl group is attached.

So the IUPAC name for this compound will be 2-methyl butane.

 

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List of Organic Compounds

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The range of organic compounds of interest in the environment and in other matrices varies enormously. They range from simple aromatic cyclic structures, for example benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene to large molecular weight compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and more complicated structures such as pesticides and poly chlorinated biphenyls.

A list of organic compounds are given below.

S.No Class of Compound
Name of specific compound
Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene
Chlorophenols
Ethyl benzene
Phenol
Toluene
Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
Chloroform
Carbon tetrachloride
Vinyl chloride
Tricholroethane
Tetrachloroethne
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chlorobenzene
Chlorotoluene
Pentachloro phenol
Poly chlorinated biphenyls
Dioxins and furans

IUPAC Organic Nomenclature

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In 1949, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) formulated rules for naming organic compounds. These IUPAC rules are most commonly used today.

The IUPAC name of an organic compound can be divided and allocated among four fields, a process illustrated below.
  1. The first field includes the names and position of substituents.
  2. The second field contains the compound root word.
  3. The third field is what we call the multiple bond index.
  4. The fourth field defines the principle functional group.

Before the IUPAC rules were accepted, trival or common names were widely employed, and many of these were incorporated into IUPAC system.

Names of Chemical Compounds

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Chemical nomenclature - the system used to name chemical compounds. Being able to describe compounds by name is essential for communication among scientists. Each chemical substance has a unique chemical symbols and names and structure, the same molecule can have several different names. Chemical symbols are used more frequently than the chemical elements names.

How to name chemical compounds?

A chemical name is a one to two letter designation for an element derived from the elements name. Chemical symbols can be written more quickly than the names and they occupy less space. The following table describes the naming of chemical compounds.

S.No
Categories
Rules
Binary compounds Type 1: Ionic (containing a metal element with only one change possibility and a nonmetal element)
  1. Write the name of the metal first
  2. Write the name of the nonmetal with an adjusted - ide ending.
 
Type 2: Ionic (containing a metal element that has more that one charge possibility and a nonmetal element)
Type 3: Covalent (containing two nonmetal elements) 
  1. Write the name of the first nonmetal with a prefix to describe the number of atoms if more than one atom is indicated.
  2. Write the name of the second nonmetal with a prefix and an adjusted - ide ending even if only one atom is indicated.
Other than binary compounds Ionic compound containing at least three elements. Name the parts of the compound in the order presented in the formula. 

The chemical name provides scientific and technical information and the chemical name describes the chemical structure of the compound. In case of drugs, it will be long chemical names and complex.

Common Chemical Names

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IUPAC uses the term common name differently than expected. IUPAC defines a common name for a substance as one that identifies that substance unambiguously but does not comply with IUPAC naming conventions. The latest IUPAC standard approves the use of common names in addition to or instead of systematic names where the use of those common names would not lead to confusion.
Chemical nomenclature is the system of names that chemists use to identify compounds. Chemical names of common substances have distinct limitations. When a new substance is formulated it must be named in order to distinguish it from all other substances is shown below.

Common Chemical Names

Chemical Group Names

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Chemical group names describe the chemical family names in which the element belong to. There are eight groups in the s and p -  blocks of the periodic table. A group is a vertical column. All the elements in a group have similar properties. They are a "chemical family".

Group number in the periodic table equals the number of electrons in the outer shell. Therefore all the atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shells.

Periodic Table with Chemical Names

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The periodic table constitutes a valuable tool that systematizes the physical and chemical properties of the elements.The utility of the periodic table lies in its ability to provide clues to the physical and chemical behavior of the elements and their compounds. Based on periodic law the chemical periodic table of elements with names is given below.

Periodic Table with Chemical Names


Periodic table arranges the elements into horizontal rows, with the same outermost partly filled major quantum groups and into vertical columns that have elements with the same valence electron structures. As a result, in any given vertical group (family) the members exhibit similar behavior patterns.

Chemical Names List

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A list of common chemical names are given below.

S.No
Names
Chemical names
Chemical name for water
Oxidane 
2
HBr chemical name
Hydrogen bromide
3
CaS chemical name
Calcium sulphide 
4
CO chemical name  Carbon monoxide 
5
NH2 chemical name
Amine 
6
NH3 chemical name (Chemical name for NH3) Ammonia
7
OH chemical name  Hydroxyl
8
NaClO chemical name  Sodium hypochlorite 
9
IO4 chemical name
Anion periodate 
10
HF chemical name Hydrogen fluoride 
11
Fe2O3 chemical name Iron(III) oxide 
12
NO2 chemical name Nitrogen dioxide 
13
BaS chemical name Barium sulfide
14
CuO chemical name
Copper oxide
15
Aspirin chemical name 2-acetoxybenzoic acid 
16
HClO3 chemical name
Chloric acid 
17
S2F10 chemical name Sulfur IV fluoride
18
FeO chemical name Iron(II) oxide 
19
H2SO3 chemical name Sulfurous acid
20
HIO3 chemical nameIodic acid 
21
CO3 chemical name Carbon Trioxide 
22
KClO chemical name Potassium hypochlorite 
23
SO4 chemical name
Sulfate 
24
PCl5 chemical name Phosphorus pentachloride 
25
SnO2 chemical name Stanum dioxide 
26
H2CO3 chemical name Carbonic acid 
27
PbS chemical name Lead(II) sulfide 
28
CaCl2 chemical name Calcium chloride 
29
HClO4 chemical name Perchloric Acid 
30
KOH chemical name Potassium hydroxide 
31
PCl3 chemical namePhosphorus trichloride
32
SF6 chemical name Sulfur hexafluoride 
33
NaHCO3 chemical name Sodium hydrogen carbonate 
34
SrS chemical name Stillinerium(2)Sufusufide 
35
KCN chemical name
Potassium cyanide 
36
PO4 chemical name
Phoshate 
37
CS2 chemical name
Carbon disulfide
38
HgO chemical name Mercury(II) oxide 
39
NaF chemical name
Sodium fluoride 
40
KNO2 chemical name
Potassium nitrite
41
SiO chemical name
Silicon monoxide 
42
KMnO4 chemical name
Potassium manganate(VII) 
43
KBr chemical name Potassium bromide 
44
SnO chemical name
Tin(II) oxide / Stannous oxide 
45
CaO chemical name Calcium oxide 
46
Salt chemical name Sodium Chloride 
47
N2H4 chemical nameHydrazine 
48
HBrO3 chemical name Bromous acid 
49
FeCl3 chemical name Ferric chloride 
50
Ibuprofen chemical name (RS)-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl)propanoic acid 
51
NaOH chemical name Sodium hydroxide 
52
Bleach chemical name
Sodium hypochlorite 
53
SiO2 chemical name Silicon dioxide 
54
Na2CO3 chemical name Sodium carbonate 
55
Chemical name for P4O10Tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]tetraphosphoxane 1,3,5,7-tetraoxide 
56
NH4NO2 chemical name Ammonium Nitrite 
57
BaF2 chemical name Barium fluoride
58
HSO4 chemical name Hydrogen Sulfate 
59
Chemical name for citric acid 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid 
60
Vitamin D chemical name
Cholecalciferol 
61
Vitamin A chemical name Retinal 
62
Vitamin E chemical name Tocopherol