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# Chemical Formula

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 Sub Topics Symbols and names of elements as well as formulas and names of compounds are fundamental to the description and expression of chemical principles and chemical processes. The use of formulas and symbols is especially helpful in the expression of chemical change.Another term for chemical change or the transformation of one or more substances with known properties into one or more other substances with completely different properties is a chemical reaction.

## Definition

Chemical Formula :
The chemical formula of a compound tells the composition of the compound. However the chemical formula does not show the type of particles in the compound.

Each compound can be represented by a chemical formula which indicates the ratio in which the various atoms are present. A chemical formula does not give information about the actual chemical particles present in a compound.

The stable chemical particles found in compounds are either ions or molecules. In some compounds they are ions (for example Na+ and Cl- ions in sodium chloride), while in others they are molecules (for example H2O molecule in water). The chemical formula of a compound is also known as molecular formula.

## Types

Different naming rules apply to inorganic compounds versus organic compounds. The main idea behind systematic naming can move easily between the name of a compound and that compound formula.

Chemical formulas can be one of two types :
1. Empirical: An empirical formula lists the kinds of atoms in a compound and gives the ratio of atoms to each other - not necessarily their actual numbers.
2. Molecular: A molecular formula also lists the kinds of atoms in a compound, but gives the actual number of each kind of atom within one molecule of the compound.

## Rules

A chemical formula is a kind of very precise chemists shorthand. It shows the symbols for the elements found in the compound and the quantity of each of those atoms and ions.
The rules for writing the chemical formula are given below.
1. Write the symbol of each element in the compound.
2. If there is more than one atom of a particular element in the formula unit write the number of atoms immediately after the symbol for the element.
Chemists use a chemical formula containing element symbols and numbers to represent the new combination of atoms and ions known as a chemical compound.

## Examples

 S.No Compounds Chemical formula 1 Chemical Formula for Sugar (Sugar Chemical Formula) C12H22O11 2 Ammonia Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ammonia) NH4 3 Chemical Formula for Vinegar (Vinegar Chemical Formula) C2H4O2 4 Ethanol Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ethanol) C2H5OH 5 Chemical Formula for Baking Soda NaHCO3 6 Chemical Formula for Glucose (Glucose Chemical Formula) C6H12O6 7 Sucrose Chemical Formula C12H22O11 8 Chemical Formula for Salt (Chemical Formula for Sodium Chloride) NaCl 9 Chemical Formula for Methane CH4 10 Chemical Formula for Hydrochloric Acid (Hydrochloric Acid Chemical Formula) HCl 11 Chemical Formula for Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O $\rightarrow$ C6H12O6 + 6O2 12 Acetic Acid Chemical Formula CH3COOH 13 Acetate Chemical Formula C2H4O2 14 Alcohol Chemical Formula C2H6O 15 Chemical Formula for Water H2O 16 Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula H2SO4 17 Sodium Bicarbonate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Bicarbonate) NaHCO3 18 Chemical Formula for Hydrogen Peroxide (Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Formula ) H2O2 19 Propane Chemical Formula C3H8 20 Bleach Chemical Formula NaClO 21 Gasoline Chemical Formula Mixture of hydrocarbons. No specific formula. 22 Chemical Formula for Sodium Hydroxide (Sodium Hydroxide Chemical Formula) NaOH 23 Sodium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Phosphate) NaH2PO4 24 Chemical Formula for Phosphoric Acid (Phosphoric Acid Chemical Formula) H3PO4 25 Chemical Formula for Calcium Carbonate (Calcium Carbonate Chemical Formula) CaCO3 26 Phosphate Chemical Formula PO43- 27 Chemical Formula for Nitric Acid (Nitric Acid Chemical Formula) HNO3 28 Chemical Formula for Carbon dioxide CO2 29 Chemical Formula for Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 30 Aspirin Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Aspirin) C9H8O4 31 Caffeine Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Caffeine) C8H10N4O2 32 Citric Acid Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Citric Acid ) C6H8O7 33 Calcium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Calcium Phosphate) Ca3(PO4)2 34 Chemical Formula for Calcium Chloride (Calcium Chloride Chemical Formula) CaCl2 35 Chemical Formula for Carbon Monoxide (Carbon Monoxide Chemical Formula) CO 36 Diamond Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Diamond) Carbon 37 Chemical Formula for Quartz (Quartz Chemical Formula) SiO2 38 Acetone Chemical Formula C3H6O 39 Potassium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Potassium Phosphate) KH2PO4 40 Ammonium Phosphate Chemical Formula (NH4)3PO4 41 Chemical Formula for Butane (Butane Chemical Formula) C4H10 42 Sulfate Chemical Formula SO42− 43 Methanol Chemical Formula CH3OH 44 Chemical Formula for Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate Chemical Formula) (NH4)(NO3) 45 Cyanide Chemical Formula CN− 46 Carbonate Chemical Formula CO32− 47 Nitrate Chemical Formula NO3- 48 Graphite Chemical Formula Carbon 49 Chemical Formula for Aluminum Al 50 Chemical Formula for Silver Nitrate AgNO3 51 Chemical Formula for Table Salt NaCl 52 Fructose Chemical Formula C6H12O6 53 Chemical Formula for Potassium Chloride (Potassium Chloride Chemical Formula) KCl 54 Chemical Formula for Sodium Sulfate Na2SO4 55 Carbon Dioxide Chemical Formula CO2 56 Chemical Formula for Magnesium Oxide MgO 57 Chemical Formula for Iron III Oxide Fe2O3 58 Chemical Formula for Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 59 Potassium Permanganate Chemical Formula KMnO4 60 Chemical Formula for Copper II Sulfate CuSO4 61 Chemical Formula for Sulfur Dioxide SO2 62 Iodine Chemical Formula I2 63 Chemical Formula for Oxygen O2 64 Sulfur Chemical Formula S 65 Chemical Formula for Iron Fe 66 Chemical Formula for Copper Cu 67 Chemical Formula for Acetone C3H6O 68 Chemical Formula for Acetate C2H4O2 69 Chemical Formula for Ozone O3 70 Sodium Nitrate Chemical Formula NaNO3 71 Chemical Formula for Nitrous Acid HNO3