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Chemical Formula

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Symbols and names of elements as well as formulas and names of compounds are fundamental to the description and expression of chemical principles and chemical processes. The use of formulas and symbols is especially helpful in the expression of chemical change.

Another term for chemical change or the transformation of one or more substances with known properties into one or more other substances with completely different properties is a chemical reaction.

Definition

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Chemical Formula :
The chemical formula of a compound tells the composition of the compound. However the chemical formula does not show the type of particles in the compound.

Each compound can be represented by a chemical formula which indicates the ratio in which the various atoms are present. A chemical formula does not give information about the actual chemical particles present in a compound.

The stable chemical particles found in compounds are either ions or molecules. In some compounds they are ions (for example Na+ and Cl- ions in sodium chloride), while in others they are molecules (for example H2O molecule in water). The chemical formula of a compound is also known as molecular formula.

Types

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Different naming rules apply to inorganic compounds versus organic compounds. The main idea behind systematic naming can move easily between the name of a compound and that compound formula.

Chemical formulas can be one of two types :
  1. Empirical: An empirical formula lists the kinds of atoms in a compound and gives the ratio of atoms to each other - not necessarily their actual numbers.
  2. Molecular: A molecular formula also lists the kinds of atoms in a compound, but gives the actual number of each kind of atom within one molecule of the compound.

Rules

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A chemical formula is a kind of very precise chemists shorthand. It shows the symbols for the elements found in the compound and the quantity of each of those atoms and ions.
The rules for writing the chemical formula are given below.
  1. Write the symbol of each element in the compound.
  2. If there is more than one atom of a particular element in the formula unit write the number of atoms immediately after the symbol for the element.
Chemists use a chemical formula containing element symbols and numbers to represent the new combination of atoms and ions known as a chemical compound.

Examples

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Chemical compounds are represented by chemical formulas. A chemical formula gives the symbols for the elements combined, with subscripts indicating how many atoms of each element are included. Chemical formulas are used to represent ions as well as neutral compounds. Formulas give only a limited amount of information about the structure of compounds.

Some of the important chemical formulas are listed below.

S.No Compounds Chemical formula
1 Chemical Formula for Sugar (Sugar Chemical Formula)
C12H22O11
2 Ammonia Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ammonia) NH4
3 Chemical Formula for Vinegar (Vinegar Chemical Formula)
C2H4O2
4 Ethanol Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ethanol)
C2H5OH
5Chemical Formula for Baking SodaNaHCO3
6
Chemical Formula for Glucose (Glucose Chemical Formula)C6H12O6
7
Sucrose Chemical Formula C12H22O11
8
Chemical Formula for Salt (Chemical Formula for Sodium Chloride) NaCl
9
Chemical Formula for Methane CH4
10
Chemical Formula for Hydrochloric Acid (Hydrochloric Acid Chemical Formula) HCl
11
Chemical Formula for Photosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O $\rightarrow$ C6H12O6 + 6O2
12
Acetic Acid Chemical Formula CH3COOH
13
Acetate Chemical FormulaC2H4O2
14
Alcohol Chemical Formula C2H6O
15
Chemical Formula for Water H2O
16
Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula H2SO4
17
Sodium Bicarbonate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Bicarbonate)NaHCO3
18
Chemical Formula for Hydrogen Peroxide
(Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Formula )
H2O2
19
Propane Chemical Formula C3H8
20
Bleach Chemical Formula NaClO
21
Gasoline Chemical Formula Mixture of hydrocarbons. No specific formula.
22
Chemical Formula for Sodium Hydroxide (Sodium Hydroxide Chemical Formula)NaOH
23
Sodium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Phosphate)NaH2PO4
24
Chemical Formula for Phosphoric Acid (Phosphoric Acid Chemical Formula)H3PO4
25
Chemical Formula for Calcium Carbonate (Calcium Carbonate Chemical Formula)CaCO3
26
Phosphate Chemical Formula PO43-
27
Chemical Formula for Nitric Acid (Nitric Acid Chemical Formula) HNO3
28
Chemical Formula for Carbon dioxide CO2
29
Chemical Formula for Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3
30
Aspirin Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Aspirin) C9H8O4
31
Caffeine Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Caffeine)C8H10N4O2
32
Citric Acid Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Citric Acid ) C6H8O7
33
Calcium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Calcium Phosphate)Ca3(PO4)2
34
Chemical Formula for Calcium Chloride (Calcium Chloride Chemical Formula) CaCl2
35
Chemical Formula for Carbon Monoxide (Carbon Monoxide Chemical Formula)CO
36
Diamond Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Diamond)Carbon
37
Chemical Formula for Quartz (Quartz Chemical Formula)SiO2
38
Acetone Chemical Formula C3H6O
39
Potassium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Potassium Phosphate) KH2PO4
40
Ammonium Phosphate Chemical Formula (NH4)3PO4
41
Chemical Formula for Butane (Butane Chemical Formula)C4H10
42
Sulfate Chemical Formula SO42−
43
Methanol Chemical Formula CH3OH
44
Chemical Formula for Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate Chemical Formula) (NH4)(NO3)
45
Cyanide Chemical Formula CN
46
Carbonate Chemical Formula CO32−
47
Nitrate Chemical Formula NO3-
48
Graphite Chemical Formula Carbon
49
Chemical Formula for Aluminum Al
50
Chemical Formula for Silver Nitrate AgNO3
51
Chemical Formula for Table Salt NaCl
52
Fructose Chemical Formula C6H12O6
53
Chemical Formula for Potassium Chloride (Potassium Chloride Chemical Formula) KCl
54
Chemical Formula for Sodium Sulfate Na2SO4
55
Carbon Dioxide Chemical Formula CO2
56
Chemical Formula for Magnesium Oxide MgO
57
Chemical Formula for Iron III Oxide Fe2O3
58
Chemical Formula for Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2
59
Potassium Permanganate Chemical Formula KMnO4
60
Chemical Formula for Copper II Sulfate CuSO4
61
Chemical Formula for Sulfur DioxideSO2
62
Iodine Chemical FormulaI2
63
Chemical Formula for Oxygen O2
64
Sulfur Chemical FormulaS
65
Chemical Formula for IronFe
66
Chemical Formula for Copper Cu
67
Chemical Formula for Acetone C3H6O
68
Chemical Formula for Acetate C2H4O2
69
Chemical Formula for Ozone O3
70
Sodium Nitrate Chemical Formula NaNO3
71
Chemical Formula for Nitrous AcidHNO3