Symbols and names of elements as well as formulas and names of compounds are fundamental to the description and expression of chemical principles and chemical processes. The use of formulas and symbols is especially helpful in the expression of chemical change.
Another term for chemical change or the transformation of one or more substances with known properties into one or more other substances with completely different properties is a chemical reaction.
DefinitionBack to Top
Chemical Formula :
The chemical formula of a compound tells the composition of the compound. However the chemical formula does not show the type of particles in the compound.
Each compound can be represented by a chemical formula which indicates the ratio in which the various atoms are present. A chemical formula does not give information about the actual chemical particles present in a compound.
The stable chemical particles found in compounds are either ions or molecules. In some compounds they are ions (for example Na+ and Cl- ions in sodium chloride), while in others they are molecules (for example H2O molecule in water). The chemical formula of a compound is also known as molecular formula.
TypesBack to Top
Different naming rules apply to inorganic compounds versus organic compounds. The main idea behind systematic naming can move easily between the name of a compound and that compound formula.
Chemical formulas can be one of two types :
- Empirical: An empirical formula lists the kinds of atoms in a compound and gives the ratio of atoms to each other - not necessarily their actual numbers.
- Molecular: A molecular formula also lists the kinds of atoms in a compound, but gives the actual number of each kind of atom within one molecule of the compound.
RulesBack to Top
A chemical formula is a kind of very precise chemists shorthand. It shows the symbols for the elements found in the compound and the quantity of each of those atoms and ions.
The rules for writing the chemical formula are given below.
- Write the symbol of each element in the compound.
- If there is more than one atom of a particular element in the formula unit write the number of atoms immediately after the symbol for the element.
Chemists use a chemical formula containing element symbols and numbers to represent the new combination of atoms and ions known as a chemical compound.
ExamplesBack to Top
Chemical compounds are represented by chemical formulas. A chemical formula gives the symbols for the elements combined, with subscripts indicating how many atoms of each element are included. Chemical formulas are used to represent ions as well as neutral compounds. Formulas give only a limited amount of information about the structure of compounds.
Some of the important chemical formulas are listed below.
|1||Chemical Formula for Sugar (Sugar Chemical Formula)
|2||Ammonia Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ammonia)||NH4
|3||Chemical Formula for Vinegar (Vinegar Chemical Formula)
|4||Ethanol Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Ethanol)
|5||Chemical Formula for Baking Soda||NaHCO3 |
|6||Chemical Formula for Glucose (Glucose Chemical Formula)||C6H12O6 |
|7||Sucrose Chemical Formula||C12H22O11|
|8||Chemical Formula for Salt (Chemical Formula for Sodium Chloride)||NaCl |
|9||Chemical Formula for Methane||CH4|
|10||Chemical Formula for Hydrochloric Acid (Hydrochloric Acid Chemical Formula)||HCl|
|11||Chemical Formula for Photosynthesis||6CO2 + 6H2O $\rightarrow$ C6H12O6 + 6O2 |
|12||Acetic Acid Chemical Formula||CH3COOH|
|13||Acetate Chemical Formula||C2H4O2 |
|14||Alcohol Chemical Formula||C2H6O|
|15||Chemical Formula for Water||H2O|
|16||Sulfuric Acid Chemical Formula||H2SO4|
|17||Sodium Bicarbonate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Bicarbonate)||NaHCO3 |
|18||Chemical Formula for Hydrogen Peroxide |
(Hydrogen Peroxide Chemical Formula )
|19||Propane Chemical Formula||C3H8 |
|20||Bleach Chemical Formula||NaClO|
|21||Gasoline Chemical Formula||Mixture of hydrocarbons. No specific formula.|
|22||Chemical Formula for Sodium Hydroxide (Sodium Hydroxide Chemical Formula)||NaOH |
|23||Sodium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Sodium Phosphate)||NaH2PO4|
|24||Chemical Formula for Phosphoric Acid (Phosphoric Acid Chemical Formula)||H3PO4 |
|25||Chemical Formula for Calcium Carbonate (Calcium Carbonate Chemical Formula)||CaCO3 |
|26||Phosphate Chemical Formula||PO43-|
|27||Chemical Formula for Nitric Acid (Nitric Acid Chemical Formula)||HNO3|
|28||Chemical Formula for Carbon dioxide||CO2|
|29||Chemical Formula for Sodium Carbonate||Na2CO3 |
|30||Aspirin Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Aspirin)||C9H8O4|
|31||Caffeine Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Caffeine)||C8H10N4O2 |
|32||Citric Acid Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Citric Acid )||C6H8O7|
|33||Calcium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Calcium Phosphate)||Ca3(PO4)2 |
|34||Chemical Formula for Calcium Chloride (Calcium Chloride Chemical Formula)||CaCl2|
|35||Chemical Formula for Carbon Monoxide (Carbon Monoxide Chemical Formula)||CO |
|36||Diamond Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Diamond)||Carbon |
|37||Chemical Formula for Quartz (Quartz Chemical Formula)||SiO2|
|38||Acetone Chemical Formula||C3H6O|
|39||Potassium Phosphate Chemical Formula (Chemical Formula for Potassium Phosphate)||KH2PO4|
|40||Ammonium Phosphate Chemical Formula||(NH4)3PO4|
|41||Chemical Formula for Butane (Butane Chemical Formula)||C4H10 |
|42||Sulfate Chemical Formula||SO42−|
|43||Methanol Chemical Formula||CH3OH |
|44||Chemical Formula for Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate Chemical Formula)||(NH4)(NO3)|
|45||Cyanide Chemical Formula||CN−|
|46||Carbonate Chemical Formula||CO32−|
|47||Nitrate Chemical Formula||NO3-|
|48||Graphite Chemical Formula||Carbon |
|49||Chemical Formula for Aluminum||Al |
|50||Chemical Formula for Silver Nitrate||AgNO3|
|51||Chemical Formula for Table Salt||NaCl |
|52||Fructose Chemical Formula||C6H12O6|
|53||Chemical Formula for Potassium Chloride (Potassium Chloride Chemical Formula)||KCl|
|54||Chemical Formula for Sodium Sulfate||Na2SO4|
|55||Carbon Dioxide Chemical Formula||CO2|
|56||Chemical Formula for Magnesium Oxide||MgO|
|57||Chemical Formula for Iron III Oxide||Fe2O3 |
|58||Chemical Formula for Calcium Hydroxide||Ca(OH)2 |
|59||Potassium Permanganate Chemical Formula||KMnO4|
|60||Chemical Formula for Copper II Sulfate||CuSO4 |
|61||Chemical Formula for Sulfur Dioxide||SO2 |
|62||Iodine Chemical Formula||I2|
|63||Chemical Formula for Oxygen||O2|
|64||Sulfur Chemical Formula||S |
|65||Chemical Formula for Iron||Fe |
|66||Chemical Formula for Copper||Cu|
|67||Chemical Formula for Acetone||C3H6O|
|68||Chemical Formula for Acetate||C2H4O2|
|69||Chemical Formula for Ozone||O3 |
|70||Sodium Nitrate Chemical Formula||NaNO3|
|71||Chemical Formula for Nitrous Acid||HNO3|