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# General Chemistry

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 Sub Topics Civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis to the various branches of chemistry. Examples include fermenting beer and wine, extracting metals from ores, extracting chemicals from plants, making alloys like bronze, making glass, making pottery and glazes and for medicines and perfumes. Chemists later began looking for substitutes of natural resources which were essential but rare to obtain and thus began the search for perfect or precise form of experiments.Chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in connecting the physical sciences, biological, medical and environmental sciences. The importance of chemistry is that it explains the world around you. If you take classes in chemistry, you'll apply math and logic, which can make studying chemistry a challenge.Chemistry is a branch of science which involves the study of matter, composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that take place with that matter.The scope of chemistry is extremely broad, and it touches every aspect of our lives. Example: An iron gate rusting, a chocolate cake baking, the production in a laboratory of an antibiotic or a plastic composite, the diagnosis and treatment of a heart attack, the propulsion of a jet airliner, and the digesting of food all fall within the realm of chemistry. The building blocks of atom are also the building blocks of knowledge for the general chemistry topics. All atoms of an element show similar chemical properties and cannot be further broken down by chemical means.

## General Chemistry Review

Chemistry provides a unique, Nano scale perspective that has been highly successful in stimulating scientific inquiry and in the development of high-tech materials, modern medicines and many other advances that benefit us every day. Chemistry is happening all around us and within us all the time.

Chemistry presents an intellectual challenge and provides ways to satisfy intellectual curiosity while helping us to better understand the world in which we live.
Chemistry is recognized by the term 'chemical science', which includes chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, materials chemistry, industrial chemistry, environmental chemistry, medicinal chemistry and many other fields.

## Principles of General Chemistry

Chemistry mainly deals with situations in which the nature of a substance is changed by altering its composition entirely new substances are synthesized or the properties of existing substances are enhanced.

The laboratory manual for principles of general chemistry requires familiarity with at least three conceptual levels to understand it better

1. Macro scale (Laboratory and real world phenomena)
2. Nano scale (models involving particles, atoms, molecules and ions)
3. Symbolis (chemical formulas and equations)

## Mastering General Chemistry

In one way or other all changes involve chemistry, the study of the composition, properties and transformations of matter. Although chemistry has its roots in early technology, chemistry as a field of study based on scientific principles came into being only in the latter part of the eighteenth century.

Chemistry is deeply involved in both the changes that take place in nature and the profound social changes of the past two centuries.

## General Chemistry Formula Sheet

A compound is a pure substance that is composed of two or more elements in a fixed proportion. There are two ways to express a formula for a compound.
1. The empirical formula gives the simplest whole number ratio of the elements in the compound.
2. The molecular formula gives the exact number of atoms of each element in the compound and usually a multiple of the empirical formula.

General chemistry formula sheet is given below.

 S.No Description Formula 1 Ideal gas Equation 2 Charles law 3 Electric current 4 Number of moles 5 Density of a material 6 Kinetic energy

## Experiments in General Chemistry

General chemistry experiments comprises of all techniques, skills, concepts and principles and observe matter by determining, measuring and monitoring physical and chemical properties of matter.

Experiments in general chemistry featuring measurement are listed below
1. Recycling aluminum cans
2. Heat of crystallization
3. Density measurements
4. Soap making
5. Shapes of molecules and ions
6. Acids and pH
7. Enthalpy of reactions
8. Reactions of acids and bases
9. Formation of a complex
10. Small scale redox titration

## Chemical Equations

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. A chemical equation describes what happens in a chemical reaction. Balancing a chemical equation refers to establishing the mathematical relationship between the quantity of reactants and products. Each side of the chemical equation must represent the same quantity of any particular element. An equation is thus a simplified way of recording a chemical change. Instead of words chemical symbols and formula are used to represent the reactant and the products.

## General Chemistry Practice Problems

Solved problems based on simple concept of general chemistry are given below.

### Solved Examples

Question 1: Calculate the mass of 2.32mol of carbon atoms?
Solution:

The atomic weight of carbon is 12.011.

Therefore 1 mol C has a mass of 12.011g

2.32mol C $\times \frac{12.011g\ C}{mol\ C}$ = 27.9g C

Question 2: What volume in liters will 2.71 mol of He gas occupy at STP?
Solution:

The molar volume of a gas at STP is 22.4L.

That means that 1 mol of He will occupy a volume of 22.4 L at STP.

2.71 mol $\times \frac{22.4\ L}{1\ mol}$ = 60.7L